عنوان مقاله [English]
An important task in the fields of ethics and practical wisdom is the examination of whether and how alteration of dispositions is possible. Avicenna is among the philosophers who believed in the alterability of dispositions, and in his several works explained how the alteration could happen. He thought that deplorable dispositions have their roots in lack of moderation in powers of the soul, especially the powers stimulating the animal soul. Therefore, from his point of view, alteration of disposition is realized only through moderation in those powers as well as through the triumph of the intellectual power. By moderation in powers, Avicenna means the establishment of a middle course between two extremes, and believes that this is realized in two ways. The first way is based on trying to do good deeds and being careful about one’s jurisprudential duties and prayers, and ethics is responsible for explaining these affairs. The second way is through moderation in temperament, which is more difficult and studied in medical science. Moderation in temperament, he thinks, is possible, first, through using foods and spices that right the temperament, and, second, through imagining a moderate temperament. In his view, the second way is far more impactful than the first, due to the status of the soul in managing and affecting the body and the degree to which the soul can influence the body.