عنوان مقاله [English]
For the first time in Farabi's work, the subject of "the excess of existence over nature" has entered into the field of metaphysical discussions and has found a high position in Ibn Sina's philosophy. Ibn Sina's interpretation of the "prosody of existence" was first used to explain this relationship, and philosophers after him became ambiguous, prompting some to consider existence to be an external transcendence. This is the relationship between existence and nature, which we have called the "mental metaphor of cargo." The relationship between existence and nature, like other common compounds in Aristotelian philosophy, is similar to the relation between subject and image. In contrast, critics of this view, given the constraints posed by this type of attitude, believe in the mental excess of existence over nature. From the point of view of a mental exaggeration, rational second existence is logical, and outside has no meaning. But in the meantime, and as a result of the innovations created by Sheikh Ishraq in philosophy, Mulla Sadra has expressed another attitude about existence and the relationship between it and nature. Mulla Sadra describes the descriptions that Sheikh Ishraq had written in real light through tangible light. Therefore, from his point of view, existence and nature are similar to "limits and limitations" and again the theory of external excess is introduced in a new form in which the problems of external excess of peripatetic are eliminated.