عنوان مقاله [English]
Philosophers before Sadra by a definition of man as rational animal regard reason as true differentia and first perfection and perceptions and actual volitional activities as second perfection which occurs to his specific quiddity; therefore, the plurality and difference of human beings is from the second perfections that human souls in the course of their spiritual perfection get access to them.
Mulla Sadra by discussing the problem of matter and form for a definition of man, unlike previous philosophers regards human form as a purgatory between two worlds of corporeality and spirituality and by basing gradual perfection on substantial motion, regards human being as having different degrees that along with his existential perfection finds different quaddities. By appealing to divine verses and reports, he regards the essential difference of human soul as definitive and emphasizes that the best and most distinguished people can never be at the same plane with the worst and most degraded ones; these two, not only in essential unity but also in specific unity, are different with each other. In this article, after a review of these two completely different views that are deriving from a difference based on principles and foundations, the reason for diversity and essential difference between individual persons as well as the mystery of stations resulting from this diversity will be explained.